Transition in cigarette smoking stages and its relationship with family psychological function and perceived social support among male second-grade high school students of Tabriz, Iran (2017-2018).
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Abstract Introduction: Adolescence is a period, during which many individuals are involved in high-risk behaviors such as smoking. Family and society environments play a fundamental role in the development of adolescent behaviors. There is limited information on the relationship between family psychological functions and perceived social support with progress in smoking stages. Objective: This study was aimed to determine the relationship between family psychological function and perceived social support through transition in smoking stages among male second-grade high school students in the city of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In this longitudinal analytical study, 2072 students (14-18 years old) from high schools affiliated to Tabriz Department of Education were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. Initially, the questionnaires for demographic characteristics, risk factors, Iranian family psychological function, and perceived social support were completed and, six months later, the smoking status questionnaire was given again. Data were analyzed using SPSS-24 software, descriptive statistics, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The results showed that 14.4% of students were progressed in the phases of smoking in six months. The highest inclusion of the students was in the regular stage, and the highest exclusion was in the Immotive stage. By controlling the potential confounding factors, strong psychological functioning of the family (OR= 0.183, 95% CI: 0.113-0.294) compared to the moderate and poor psychological functioning of the family, as well as moderate perceived social support (OR= 0.202, 95% CI: 0.130-0.313) and high perception of the social support (OR= 0.038, 95% CI: 0.022-0.098) compared to the low perception of social support, have a preventive role in the transition in smoking stages. Conclusions: According to the results, it is suggested to perform a principled, precise, and operational planning for strengthening the family psychological functions and providing an appropriate social support condition among adolescents to prevent the tendency toward cigarette smoking and its more advanced phases