Effect of virtual reality method and multimedia system on burn patients' pain during dressing
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Aim: Pain is the most important factor which forces burn patients to look for the health system's help. One of the non-pharmacological methods of pain relief for burn patients is virtual reality, which is a challenging technique because virtual reality headset itself may cause claustrophobia and anxiety followed by the cycle of anxiety and pain via creating a closed space. The present study is aimed to determine the effect of both methods of virtual reality and multimedia system on the burn patients' pain during dressing. Material and Method: The present clinical trial was conducted on 60 burn patients hospitalized in Sina Hospital, Tabriz, in accordance with the inclusion criteria using the technique of random allocation to three groups of virtual reality, multimedia system, and control. The sounds and virtual images were played through headsets in the virtual reality group and an LCD in the multimedia system group during dressing and dressing changes in five consecutive days. Data analysis was performed using a demographic questionnaire as well as the linear-visual scale of pain intensity. Furthermore, the repeated measurement test was used to investigate the changes in pain over time and compare the control group with the multimedia system and virtual reality groups. Results: Comparing the three groups indicated a significant difference (p = 0.006). The results showed no significant difference between the virtual reality and control groups (p>0.05), but the pain score in the multimedia group was significantly different from the control group on the first (p = 0/02), second (p = 0.008), third (p = 0/02) fourth (p = 00) and fifth (p = 0.03) days of the intervention. Comparison of multimedia and virtual reality showed the pain score in the virtual reality was higher than multimedia on the fourth day (p = 0/002) of intervention. Discussion: Multimedia system can have positive effects on reduction of the burn patients' pain compared to virtual reality; therefore, it is recommended to use this method for controlling the burn patients' pain.