Investigation the blood level of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol(2-AG), Neuropeptide Y and Omentin and their correlation with food habits in obese women
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Background: Obesity is a prevalence worldwide issue and it costs a lot in the health system of any country annual. Simply obesity is caused because of food intake and energy metabolism imbalance. 2-arachidonoyl ¬glycerol (2-AG), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and omentin are parts of energy regulators. But there are limited studies about the correlation of these factors with food habits and most of them are animal. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of eating habits and patterns, especially macronutrients, with serum levels of these variables. Materials and Methods: This case-control analytical study was carried on equal number (n==45 each group) of obese and normal weight women; based on body mass index range (BMI = 18.5-24.9 for normal weight group and BMI = 30-39.9 for the obese group) and age of 20-50 years which were selected by simple and available sampling method and through a public call with reference to the Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science. Demographic characteristics (age, sex, menopausal status, disease and fasting) and anthropometric measurements (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage) of the participants in the study were collected and measured by a skilled person. Fasting blood sample from all participants were taken, centrifuged and isolated serum was stored in the refrigerator at -80 ° C. Serum levels of 2-AG, NPY and omentin was determined using ELISA. In order to evaluate the amount of each food group consumption and eating habits of individuals, a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) containing 147 food items which was validated in accordance with Iranians was used and was completed face-to-face by a nutritionist. The amount of each food group was converted to grams and Nutritionist IV software was used to analyze the data related to the intake of each food group. Results: Mean serum levels of 2-AG and NPY were significantly higher in obese women than women with normal weight (p <0.05). In obese women, there was a statistically significant positive relationship between 2-AG level and energy intake (r = 0.219 and p = 0.038), carbohydrates (r = 0.238 and p = 0.024), total fat intake (r = 0.227). P = 0.032 and saturated fatty acids (r = 0.272 and p = 0.038), unsaturated monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.265 and p = 0.012) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.247). There was p = 019.0. There was a direct relationship between NPY level and total fat intake (r = 0.366 and p <0.001) and types of fatty acids. There was no significant relationship between omentin levels with any of the food groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that dietary habits, especially the types of fatty acids consumed, may affect the levels of 2-AG, NPY and omentin, which are involved in the pathways of obesity.