Effect of educational package on Self-Care behavior, quality of life, and blood glucose levels in pregnantwomen with gestational diabetes: A randomized controlled trial
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Background: Gestational diabetes is a particular disorder during pregnancy which can cause complications for mother and fetus. One reason for the limited success in the treatment of diabetes is the lack of patient participation in the process of treatment. Selfcare education is an important principle in the treatment of diabetes that can enhance the quality of life. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of educational package on self-care behavior, quality of life, FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar), and GTT (Glucose Tolerance Test) among women with gestational diabetes. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was performed on 92 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (n = 46 in each group) referring to diabetes clinic of Tohid hospital in Sanandaj, Iran. The educational program was designed in four sessions (one session per week) for the intervention group and included routine prenatal care along with education on self-care through lecture and question and answer. The participants also received educational booklet at the end of the first session. The control group received only routine prenatal care. Before and four weeks after the intervention, self-care and quality of life questionnaires were completed by the participants in both groups, and fasting blood glucose and GTT were measured. Results: After adjusting for the baseline score, the mean score of self-care behaviors was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group four weeks after the intervention [adjusted mean difference: 19.5; 95% confidence interval: 14.4 to 24.6; P < 0.001]. Also, by adjusting for the baseline values, there was a statistically significant difference in the mean level of blood glucose at the time points of one hour after GTT [-21.6;-32.1 TO-11.1; P < 0.001] and two hours after GTT [-17.3;-23.0 to-11.6; P < 0.001]. No statistically significant difference was seen in the FBS (P = 0.443) and quality of life (P = 0.264) four weeks after the intervention. Conclusions: Self-care education can improve self-care behavior in women with gestational diabetes and it is also effective in impaired glucose tolerance. © 2017, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.