Clinical, laboratory biomarkers and imaging findings of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in Iran
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Background: Pancreatic cancer has a high mortality rate because it is usually diagnosed late. Since little is known about this cancer in Iran, with the aim of improving this knowledge deficiency, we evaluated clinical, laboratory biomarkers, imaging findings and treatment modalities in Iranian patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods: 131 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in 2010-2013 were obtained from the Taleghani Hospital Record Department. Cases confirmed by histopathology from CT-guided biopsy, EUS-FNA and surgery examination were included. We excluded those with incomplete medical records. Results: The study included 131 subjects between 24 and 97 years of age and a mean age of 63آ±13.4 years. Eighty (61.1%) were male and 51 (38.9%) female. Previous history included diabetes mellitus in 36 (27.5%), alcohol drinking in 5 (3.9%), smoker in 28 (21.4%) and opium addiction in 13 (10%) . The common presenting history included weight loss in 79 (60.3%), abdominal pain in 77 (58.8%), fever in 11 (8.4%), nausea in 30 (22.9%), jaundice in 72 (55%), pruritus in 52 (39.7) and anemia in 33 (25.2%) . CA19-9 levels with cut offs of 50, 100 and 200 U/ml were increased in 81%, 72% and 66% of patients, respectively. Tumor staging was: stage I, 3 (2.3%); stage II, 10 (7.6%); stage III, 58 (44.3%); and stage IV, 60 (45.8%). From 45 patients, 17 received ERCP inserted metallic stents and 22 plastic stents, the remaining 6 failed that PTC was done. Whipple surgery and chemotherapy were conducted for 10 and 29 patients, respectively. Conclusions: This disease affected older people and there was a male preponderance. The commonest risk factors were diabetes mellitus, smoking and cholelithiasis. The majority of patients presented with loss of appetite, loss of weight, jaundice, abdominal pain and discomfort. Almost all presented at late stages of the disease so that curative surgery was impossible. Also chemotherapy was only performed in a few patients as a neoadjuant treatment.