A Study of 415 Cases of Esophageal Carcinoma in Northwest of Iran
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Background and Objective: Considering the serious and fatal nature of esophageal carcinoma and is prevalence in the population on the banks of Caspian sea and northern region (Azerbaijan, Khorassan, Gilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Kurdistan) along with the importance of its early diagnosis in the initial stage in order to increase the survival period of the patient, we aimed to proceed in regard to these factual observations so that this study should be an incentive and beginning of our future perfect study. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study over a period of five years (from year 1994 to 1999), a total of 415 pathologically documented esophageal carcinoma out of those 33000 referred cases those with clinical signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer were enrolled in this study. Main complain of patients included (Dysphagia, odynophagia retrosternal pain with unknown origin, anorexia, weight loos, and anemia with undetermined etiology) in one of the treatment center Age of these patients ranged from 20 to 80 years old, with mean age of 60 years and stable variables were selected from the chart of the patients. The study was accomplished with serial radiography and Endoscopy. Biopsy specimens collected during Endoscopy were sent for histological examination and staging of the disease. Finally, with the confirmation of pathological report, patients were referred for the therapeutical management. Results: Out of 415 patients with distinct confirmative pathological findings, 349 (88.3%) cases had squamous cell carcinoma while, 46 (11.7%) of them were having adenocarcinoma. Among these patients, 214 were males and 201 females. The male to female ratio was almost equal. Conclusion: This study highlights the type of esophageal cancer along with the sex distribution and its diagnostic approaches. Squamous cell carcinoma was mainly observed among the patients studied and there was not significant difference between its involvement among males and females. After the diagnosis, 5 years survival rate will depend upon its early diagnosis, accurate staging of the disease and management of the patient with appropriate therapy.
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